|V||Melting point 1890 °C||Vanadium|
Refines the primary grain and thus the casting structure. Pronounced carbide former, thus providing increase in wear resistance, edge holding quality and high temperature strength. It is used therefore primarily as additional alloying element in high speed, hot forming and creep resistant steels. Significant improvement in retention of temper, reduction of overheating sensitivity. As V refines the grain and inhibits air hardening as a result of carbide formation, it promotes the weldability of heat treatable steels. Increase in resistance to compressed hydrogen on account of carbide formation. V restricts the γ-phase and shifts the Curie point to elevated temperatures.